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Direct printing extrudes a liquid metal through a dispensing tip, usually a syringe needle, onto a target substrate in close proximity. In general, the dispensing tip or the substrate is attached to motorized stages that can move as programmed. In contrast to lithography-assisted patterning, the direct printing does not require any preparation effort in cleanroom. One simple way of liquid metal direct printing is the liquid metal roller-ball pen method. Patterning using pen employs a ball pen filled with EGaIn ink. In general, the ball diameter ranges from 200 to 1000 um, thus the pen method is well suited to pattern liquid metal with relatively large line widths. It is also possible to print by immersing a microtip in EGaIn and then patterning EGaIn on the substrate point-by-point fashion. When small dots are created with their spacings smaller than their diameters, they merge and form patterns. In a more advanced platform, liquid metal printing is performed using a motorized XY-stage and a syringe pump. While this advanced direct printing is more efficient than the pen or the microtip methods, the resulting patterns exhibit undulation due to the pulsation in the syringe pump. To remove the undulation, the syringe pump has been replaced with a pneumatic pressure source and an electronic pressure regulator. It is also important to maintain the distance between the tip and the substrate to obtain a uniform liquid metal pattern. To this end, the distance feedback control is first demonstrated with a motorized XYZ-stage to print linear patterns along one direction on elastomeric substrates. With the aid of the nozzle tip-substrate distance control, EGaIn can be patterned reliably even the patterning substrate is locally irregular. Later, the same concept is extended to enable piece-wise linear patterns with sharp corners on top of various uneven surfaces. This new system is constructed using a motorized XYZ-stage, a motorized rotation stage, and a laser displacement sensor along with an electronic pressure regulator. The added rotation degree-of-freedom enables continuous EGaIn patterns even when the patterning direction is changed. The rotation stage can steer the laser displacement sensor and make it always precede the patterning nozzle. Therefore, arbitrary piece-wise linear patterns can be printed on inclined or curved substrates.

Room-temperature galliumliquid metalalloyshave drawn increasing research interests recently. These alloys not only can flow easily, but also can be shaped to some extent. They own all useful properties of other solid/molten metals such as high thermal conductivity, high electrical conductivity, inherently high density, and low vapor pressure, while being non-toxic, unlike mercury. Two important gallium-based alloys are GaInSn and EGaIn. GaInSn or galinstan is a eutectic alloy composed of 68%wtgallium, 22%wt ofindium, and 10%wt of tin. EGaIn is a similar eutectic composition of 75.5%wt of gallium and 24.5%wt of indium. Demonstrating superior performances in various aspects, gallium-based liquid metals have been explored for many novel applications, such as microfluidics devices, stretchable electronics, reconfigurable devices, electronics cooling, vacuum pumping, and painted conductive electrodes in liquid droplet actuation. However, there are also some challenges in working with these liquid metals. When exposed to air, an oxide layer quickly forms on the surface of liquid metals, which is undesirable in some applications. That said, this oxide layer is not always problematic, since it can also help stabilize the liquid mechanically. One of the leading research groups working on room-temperature liquid metals, discussed numerous emerging capabilities, and applications of gallium-based liquid metal devices enabled by the native oxide layer. One advantage provided by oxide layer is that it facilitates manipulation of gallium-based liquid metals.

TIM-PAD-I, TIM-PAD-PRO, TIM-PAD-ULTRA are metal material with a melting point between 58 and 60 degrees. When the operating temperature of the CPU / GPU is higher than this range, the metal thermal conductive sheet can also be used to replace aluminum and copper sheets, which is an environmentally friendly product that complies with the EU ROHS standard.The heat dissipation performance of metal thermal pad is 60-70 times of water. Based on the unique thermal physical properties of low melting point metals, it can be widely used not only in the chip thermal management of high-performance servers, desktops, industrial computers, notebook computers, and communication base stations. , And also plays an indispensable role in many key areas, such as: advanced energy fields (industrial waste heat utilization, solar thermal power generation, focused photovoltaic cell cooling, fuel cells), aviation thermal control fields (satellite, thermal protection), photovoltaic devices (Projectors, power electronics), LED lighting, micro / nano electromechanical systems, biochips, and electric vehicles, etc., have great industrial applications. High-end applications determine the high standards of product quality, accuracy, and appearance. In order to meet such a large market demand, stricter requirements have been placed on the production method of metal thermal conductive sheets. Santech can follow the customer's requirements to produce metal thermal pad of different sizes and shapes, including rectangular, circular, triangular, and can customize metal thermal conductive sheets of different melting points to achieve customer use in different environments.

TIM-PASTE-I, TIM-PASTE-Pro, TIM-PASTE-Ultra are liquid metal thermal compound based on eutectic alloy. It is a viscous thermal grease with 100% metal content. The thermal conductivity is above 20w/mk. It has very good adhesion and high temperature resistance. It is non-flowing, non-volatile and non-oxidizing can work very well even under high temperature environment. It is an ideal alternative to silicone grease. It can also be used for IGBT and large LED cooling, power battery cooling, CPU / GPU cooling, and can maintain high thermal conductivity and safety for a long time.TIM-PASTE produced by Sinoma Shengte is an environmentally friendly product that complies with the European Union's ROHS standards. It can be used in conduction systems, heat conduction cooling, thermal design, temperature adjustment devices, flexible printed circuit boards, switches, barometers, etc. Liquid metal can also be directly applied between the CPU / GPU and the heat sink, as a sufficient filling material for the contact surface, which plays a role of rapid cooling.Liquid metal, whether you apply it in paste or solid form. It will become liquid at high temperature and condense to solid at low temperature (it will not work after shutdown).It should be noted that when applying to the CPU, do not spill liquid metal on the motherboard. Liquid metal designed by Sinoma Shengte is very suitable for application and is equipped with cleaning materials to ensure that you can protect yourself during the application process. CPU. Welcome to visit our website or contact ourengineers to communicate any technical problems you may encounter during use.

Are the liquid metal thermal pastes that be used in CPUof laptop dangerous and corrosive?In few years ago, people blurry think that liquid metal thermal paste could corrode the radiator and conduct electricity, no one to use it. That's because people don't know much about liquid metal thermal paste.But the truth is use of liquid metal thermal paste on the CPU is obviously better than the currently available heatconduction grease. Not only is it not corrosive, but as it doesn’t need additional protection, as long as it's used correctlyAs shown at right, it is the effect sketch of the liquid metal thermal paste on the CPU, the gray metal who looks like plasticine actually is insulating material. it can prevent the conductive effectively. For the CPU, it doesn’t require additional protection as long as the cover is not opened and the liquid metal is applied not too much. Liquid metal thermal paste is not corrosive. As long as it uses properly and evenly, the effect after use is also very prominent.Caution: Do not use too much liquid metal thermal paste on the CPU. Do a good job of insulation protection, open the cover with caution. In recent years, with the development of electronic devices toward higher integration, the heat generated in the unit area has continued to rise.In order to meet requirements of heat dissipation, the heat product by electronic devices needs to be conducted to the heat sink firstly and then emitted from the heat sink to the air.However, there are a large number of extremely uneven potholes between the surface of the electronic device and the heat sink.Therefore, people generally adopt the thermal interface material with high-thermal conductivity to fill the potholes, and the air in it is eliminated.Thus establishing a heat conduction channel between the surface of the electronic device and the heat sink.A new type of liquid metal filled thermal conductive silicone grease can be product by f filling liquid metal into a silicone oil matrix.The results of the study show that the thermal conductivity of liquid metal filled silicone grease is eminently better than the currently available thermal grease.

Metal thermal pad as one of the important techniques to enhance heat transfer, is widely used to improve the heat transfer rate of solid wall. Such as aircraft, air conditioning, electronic components, motor vehicle thermal conductivity, Marine thermal conductivity and so on. The research on the heat transfer enhancement of thermal conductive pad has attracted the attention of many researchers at home and abroad, such as the research on the natural convection of thermal conductive sheet and the research on the forced convection of thermal conductive sheet.Heat conduction pad is mainly used to strengthen the heat conduction of the heating surface to the air, so we take the heat conduction sheet in contact with the air as the research object.Due to the low surface temperature (generally no more than 250 ℃) of the thermal conductive pad, the radiative heat transfer ratio of the thermal conductive pad group to the air is less than 3% of the total thermal conductivity. Therefore, the heat conduction between the surface and the surrounding environment is mainly convection heat transfer. Influence of height on the heat conduction of heat conducting pad: increasing the height of heat conducting pad H can increase the heat exchange area A, thus achieving the purpose of strengthening heat transfer. However, increasing the height will reduce the local heat transfer coefficient on the top of the heat conducting sheet and lead to the decrease of the average heat transfer coefficient. In addition, the height also affects the temperature drop from the base surface of the heat conducting sheet to the end. The higher the height, the greater the temperature drop, resulting in a decrease in the average temperature difference between the surface and the surrounding atmosphere, which is not conducive to heat conduction.In fact, the height of the heat conductor will also be limited by the overall size of the machine. Influence of thickness on the heat conduction of heat conducting sheet: the thinner the heat conducting sheet is, the more heat conducting sheet can be loaded per unit length, thus increasing the heat conducting area and strengthening the heat conducting pad; Along with the rising of the slice thickness of thermal conductivity, thermal conductivity and surface atmosphere around the average heat transfer temperature difference Δ T decreases, which is harmful for thermal conductivity. In practical applications, thickness is often limited by the technological level. Generally, the thickness of the casting heat conducting sheet shall be no less than 2 mm, and the thickness of the machined heat conducting sheet shall be no less than 1 mm.

A thermal pad is part of a thermal system. How does a thermal pad dissipate the heat generated by the CPU? First, it is important to understand that there are three types of heat conduction: conduction, convection and radiation.Conduction refers to the exchange of kinetic energy between molecules, the collision of lower energy particles and higher energy particles to obtain energy (through direct physical contact), a single piece of heat conduction is not able to achieve heat conduction. In a word, conduction is the most important way that the heat conductor gets heat from the CPU.Convection is the transfer of heat through the movement of hot matter. It means that heat comes from a source of heat surrounded by a gas or liquid, which is transferred by the movement of molecules. We can achieve forced convection by adding a fan to the heat conducting sheet. Convection is the main mode of fan/heat exchanger combination refrigeration. Most of the heat generated by the CPU is carried away by the convection formed by the fan, and only a very small amount of the heat is emitted through radiation.In order to achieve this effect, a heat conductor must be designed to enhance the effect.Two methods are usually used to achieve this: the surface area of the heat conductor is increased as much as possible to facilitate the flow of air. The use of metal fins not only increases the heat conduction area, but a good metal fin design also makes convection more efficient. Make the contact surface between the thermal pad and the CPU as smooth as possible, otherwise, the thermal insulation layer will be formed between the CPU and the thermal pad. Of course, even if the contact surface is very smooth, there will inevitably be the existence of gaps, therefore, in the contact place can use thermal paste, thermal silicon grease or special thermal patch as an aid to improve the contact area.Radiation, as the name suggests that heat is emitted directly from a heat source in the form of an electromagnetic field (transmitted by photons). Radiation can take place in a vacuum. The heat transfer efficiency of radiation depends on the material of the heat source and the color of the surface.

Liquid metal is also named as the amorphous alloy, metallic glass, it is a condensed state that atoms arranged the crystal in random order when the metal freezing rapidly, and keep the atoms in liquid form at room or low temperatures. The structure of amorphous atoms make the liquid metal atoms have many unique performances, such as excellently corrosion resistance, abrasiveresistance, and high strength, high hardness, etc.Most of Metal(1) Aluminum, the metal element with the highest content in the earthcrust(2)Iron, the metal element with the world's highest annual production currently(3)Calcium, the metal element with the highest content in human body (4)Silver, the metal element with the best conductor of electricity and heat(5)Chromium, the metal element with the hardest(6)Cesium, the metal element with the most lively(7)Tungsten, the metal element with the highest melting point(8)Mercury, the metal element with the lowest melting point(9)Osmium, the metal element with densest(10)Cone, the metal element with the least dense(11)Gold, the metal element with the best malleability(12) Platinum, the metal element with the best ductility (13)Uranium, the metal element with the largest reserves in the seaCrystal structure and physical properties of metals The metal substance of forming by metallic elements. In a solid state, it's all metallic crystals.Physical properties of metalsThere is electrical property between metal ions and free electrons in the metal crystal, the function has difference between power and weakness. Normally, the more valence electrons, the smaller the atomic radius and the stronger the effect. Its melting and boiling point is relatively high, density and hardness is also better. Chemical properties of common metalsThe characterize of metal’s chemical properties is that they are easy to lose electrons in their outermost layers and display the reductibility, which is related to their atomic structure.Oxide of MetalConception: A kind of binary compound that consist of oxygen and metalGalliumGallium is a very magical liquid metal element, it has low melting point high boiling point, just the temperature of the palm can make it melt. Gallium is also known as the "backbone of the electronics industry". Many compounds of gallium are superior semiconductor materials, which are widely used in the photoelectron industry and microwave communication industry, the most famous is the galliumnitride blue LED, which won the 2014 Nobel Prize in physics.Galliumarsenideis used to the manufacture of solar cells and make contribution to the sustainable use of energy.IndiumIndium is a silver-white with light blue, it is very soft and can be scratched with fingernails.Indium has powerful plasticity and malleability, it can be pressed into sheets.The metal indium is mainly used to make materials of low-meltingalloy, bearing alloy and semiconductor etc.Indium is avirulent but should be avoided in contact with skin and ingested.Tin A metallic element having a silvery white luster and a low melting point, It's divalent or tetravalent in the compound and will not be oxidized by air. It occurs mainly in the form of oxides (cassiterite) and various sulfides (Such as sulfur cassiterite ).Gallium Indium Tin Alloy Low-melting point alloy,it means the fusible alloy that melting point is lower than 232℃(the melting point of Sn); It is usually composed of Bi, Sn, Pb, In and other low-melting metallic elements. Low-melting alloys are widely used to the solders. And other fuses wire, fuseprotector etc. thermosensitive components in electrical appliances, steam, fire control, fire alarm and other devices.Liquid metalThe Liquid Metal is made of 100% metal material and is liquid form atroom temperature. It has greater thermal conductivity than that of traditional thermal conductive materials, and has excellent heat dissipation performance. With remarkable stability and reliability, it is very good to used in the field of CPU/GPU cooling, high temperature and heat flow, and is a great substitute of Silicone Grease. In addition to the high thermal conductivity of all metals, those in the liquid form will also exhibit low interfacial resistance ensuring that they can dissipate heat quickly. Meanwhile, it is compatible with copper and stainless steel without emitting organic substance.Nowlet'stalkabouttheadvantagesofliquidmetalsthathavebeenpopularrecentlyComparedwithtraditionalmetals,theadvantagesofliquidmetalsarereflectedinthreeaspects:property,processandcost:1.Property,liquidmetalisknownasthehardestlightalloy,andithasoutstandingperformanceinRadiatingcapabilityandElectromagneticshielding.2.Process,liquidmetalcanbeinjectionmolded,pressurecastedandotherprocessestoobtaintheidealshape,duetoitiscooledbyamorphousstate,theshrinkageisverysmall.Partsmadeofliquidmetalhaveveryhighdimensionalaccuracy.3.Cost,liquidmetalisacleaningmaterials,thematerialsandproductofprocesshasnotoxicandsideeffectandfewimpactontheenvironment.Andliquidmetalproductsarebasicallyaone-timemolding,savealotofpost-processing,isakindofgreenmaterials.

What is a liquid metal thermal paste?Liquid metal thermal paste is a paste-like material with metallic characteristics.It has the following characteristics:1.High thermal conductivity2. Good adhesion3. High temperature resistance4. Does not flow at high temperatures5. Non-volatile6. Does not oxidize7. Does not cure at room temperature8. Conductive9. Non-flammable and explosive10. Non-toxic environmental protectionApplication fields of liquid metal thermal paste.Liquid metal thermal pastes can be used in magical aerospace and Computer configuration, and much more. This is a novel in recent years, and its thermal conductivity is far superior to traditional silicone oil-based silicone grease.The method of use is to first clean the surface of the object, take out a small amount of liquid metal thermal paste, and apply it evenly on the surface.It is also a pure metal paste-like thermal interface material, which has super high thermal conductivity and stability, can break through the traditional thermal interface materials, and has excellent thermal conductivity. Widely used for heat dissipation of electronic equipment in high temperature and high density heat flow occasions.How often to replace theliquid metal thermal paste?After testing, the performance of the liquid metal thermal paste used on the CPU for more than 2 years has not deterioratedIt can be seen that the liquid metal thermal paste has a long service life.NOTICE: Liquid metal is conductive, novices need to do a good job to insulation, and don’t put liquid metal with aluminum and aluminum alloyLiquid metal thermal paste and thermally conductive silicone greaseSilicone grease filling effectFor safety considerations, the conductivity of silicone grease must be very weak. Therefore, some silver and aluminum will be added on the basis of aluminium oxide to improve the thermal conductivity. Due to the smallest particles still can’t fill the gap completely, the effect of silicone grease is very limited.Advantages of liquid metals Even if the traditional silicone grease doesn’t care about the conductivity, full use of metal powder is useless. The cost of moving from micron to nanometre will increase exponentially, but the performance will be not very strong.Metals are directly composed of atoms, and the atoms are connected by metal bonds. Since the outer layer of the gallium atom has only three electrons, the force of constraining between the atoms is very weak, so the gallium-based alloy can be in a liquid state at normal temperature.Liquid metalfilling effectNanometrethermalpasteThe performance of liquid metal is modified by a special process. The metal thermalpaste made by adding nanometre metal particles is a 100% thick metal thermal grease with a thermal conductivity that more than 20 W / m · K, it’s veryadhesive and heatresisting. It will not flow, evaporate, oxidize or dry out in high temperature environments. It is an ideal thermally conductive material to replace silicone grease. It can also be used for IGBT and large LED cooling, power battery cooling, CPU / GPU cooling, and can maintain high thermal conductivity and safety for a long time. Metal thermal paste is a non-toxic product that complies with EU RoHS standards. It can be directly applied between the heat source and the heat sink, which can completely fill the gap and take advantage of the high thermal conductivity of the metal. The applied thickness can be between 0.01 mm and 0.2 mm. At the same time, the liquid metal does not react with copper and stainless steel, so that the safety and service life of the contact device can be achieved. ingredientGaInSnAgZnThermal conductivity>20W/m·KPackaging specifications5g, 10g, 100gConductivity3 X 106S/mViscosity8000 mPa·sOperating temperature-50℃~600℃Volatility

Liquid metal filling process is the first stage of casting formation in which many defects of the casting are formed.This process must be mastered and controlled in order to obtain high quality sound castings.To this end, the ability of liquid metal to fill the mold is studied in order to obtain a fully formed, well-defined casting to prevent defects in the mold filling phase.The ability of a liquid alloy to fill the mold cavity to form a well-defined, well-formed, high-quality casting is called the fluidity of the liquid alloy and the filling capacity.The better the fluidity of the liquid alloy, the easier it is to cast clear, thin and complicated shapes, and the more the liquid alloy can be supplemented when it contracts in the mold, the more the gas and non-metallic inclusions in the liquid alloy can float up and get rid of.If the fluidity is not good, it is easy to cause casting to produce defects such as under casting, cold isolation, porosity, slag inclusion and shrinkage.Liquid metal filling casting is a complex physical, chemical and hydrodynamic problem, which involves various properties of liquid metal, such as density, viscosity, surface tension, oxidization, oxide properties and wettability.The size of filling capacity affects the forming of casting, and the alloy with poor filling capacity is difficult to obtain large, thin - walled, sound casting with complex structure. The factors that affect mold filling function through two ways: one is to influence the heat exchange condition between the metal and the mold, thus changing the flow time of the liquid metal; The other is to influence the hydraulic conditions of the liquid metal in the casting, so as to change the flow rate of the liquid metal.

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